Art of the Ancient East

The Ancient Near East was characterized by unique and distinctive features. The region was defined by contrasting attributes such as fertile river valleys and arid deserts, great violence and notable developments, wandering nomads and settled civilizations. The region covered an area of three million square miles spanning from the north of the modern Turkey, through the Mediterranean coast through to the east of Mesopotamia and Iran, up to the Indus River valley. It spanned from 3000s BCE TO 600S CE. The complexity and diversity of the region are also reflected in its art. The art of the region varies depending on the period and area of origin (Meyer 301-302).The paper focuses on examining and analyzing the art of the Ancient Near East.

There are some major distinctive characteristics that define the art of the Ancient Near East. The art focuses on expressing the relationship that exists between humanity and divinity. Most of the artistic artefacts are religious in nature and were in honoring gods during religious practices.  The Ancient Near East art is political and was used by rulers to proclaim power and prestige. In most case, the artists focused on showing their expertise instead of their imagination. Animals were frequently displayed in the art, and are used to represent kingship, divinity, fertility and strength. The human images present in the art are idealistic and less naturalistic. Images are used to depict the power, wisdom and strength of rulers.  The art is defined by relief carvings. The carvings are some kind of 3D design that stand out from the flat surface (Meyer 301-302).

The Great Lyre sound box is a unique and outstanding art of the Ancient Near East (figure 1). It was created between 2600-2500 BCE.  It is an example of the Sumerian art.  The Great Lyre sound box has a front panel comprising of four different registers. The registers have four scenes made of figures that are mostly animals doing various activities. The front panel of the Great Lyre sound box focuses on portraying the effect of dynamism and energy despite the fact that compartmentalization of the four scenes in the sound box is rigid. The energy effect is created by the curvy compositional lines and the color of the figures. The sound box is made of two distinct colors that include light tan and a dark black. The colors come about due to the medium of the panel. The dark black is created using bitumen. And is used in making the lines and the panel of the background. The inlaid shell is applied to create light tan color. The inlaid shell is used on the objects and the figures of the body. A sense of dynamism to the figures is added by the start contrast created by the light tan against a dark background. The figures seem to have some sense of glow and life in them. The viewer perceives a sense of presence and energy since the lightly colored figures appear closer to the viewer while the black background is pushed faraway (Steadman and Jennifer 6-10).

The figures on the sound box and established in a way that the idea of energy is depicted. The entire space of the registers and scenes are filled with figures with the aim of portraying a strong and energetic presence. Some straining and twisting occur in the bodies of the figures so that they can fill and fit the space within the register. For instance, the upper-most register shows the dynamic twisting of two bulls. The human figure is portrayed as the “Master of the Animals” by symmetrically placing the bulls beside it. The bodies of the bulls twist inwardly towards the human figure while their heads and necks twist outwardly and slightly downwards.  The beards and hairs of the three figures are used to accentuate the theme of energy and curves in the piece of art and this detail and some others were described in this art introduction essay.

The curvaceous lines in other figures of the art are used to symbolize energy. The second register located at the top of the box has tails and backs of the lion and hyena (Figure 2). Swooping lines are used to portray the distinctive features of the two animals. The bushy mane of the lion is depicted using swooping short lines on its back. A sense of energy and movement occurs by using opposing compositional lines on the panel. The bottom of the second register shows the back of a bear curving downward and upward in a dynamic swoop. The bear’s body is placed in a dynamic angle as it leans towards the lyre on left side of the scene. Opposing movement and dynamism is added to the overall composition of the art by the manner in which certain strings of the lyre curve are placed in relation to the position and of the bear’s body (Hall 22).

Some of the most dynamic lines and curves are contained on the lowest register of the front panel (Figure 3). The tail of the scorpion man situated on the left side of the art is the most obvious curve. It curls with an upward swoop, and end with a downward loop. Energy is strongly depicted using the detailed lines and shape of the scorpion. The tail is made of a number of oval shapes with characteristics decreasing size. The multiple lines appearing within each of the oval shape indicate that the tail is full of energy (Steadman and Jennifer 23).

Myths and Misperceptions

I’ve read in an essay about that I could save money by just putting a copy of my work in an envelope, mail it to myself and then keep the unopened envelope.  She called this the “poor man’s copyright” and said that it substitutes for registration.

This is one of the leading copyright myths.  The poor man’s copyright does not exist. The unopened envelope does not meet the law’s requirements for effective registration.

I am a photographer, so if I own copyright in my photograph, can I do anything with my photograph?

Not necessarily. You do own your copyright but you may not own all the rights to the image.  This misunderstanding causes a lot of problems for photographers. Since photographs usually depict reality they may contain what are called “underlying” rights that may belong to someone else.  Underlying rights can include trademarks, another copyright or a right to privacy or publicity for anyone visible in the photograph.  Underlying rights are problematic if you want to license your work for commercial purposes. For example, if you photograph someone carrying a Gucci® bag, you don’t own the right to reproduce the trademarked logo on the bag.  If someone in the photo has a visible tattoo, you might be violating the reproduction rights of the tatoo artist.   If there is a clearly visible photograph, painting or sculpture in your photograph, you may be infringing that copyright.  If you have people in your photographs you may be violating their rights to privacy or publicity unless you have a signed model’s release.

This is really a problem if you have unknowingly signed a contract in which you have guaranteed, “warranted” (just a fancy way of saying promise) or agreed that you “own all the rights” to the photograph and/or that you have cleared all the rights to the photograph and you accept all liability for any infringements. Again, read what you sign and if you see this language in a contract, be careful.

Five Best STEM Grant Opportunities

Increasingly, institutions, government agencies, and donors are focusing more on subjects that touch on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. This is because the future of the universe depends on advances in these fields, and therefore demands investments regarding research and exploration. What’s more, as the population of the world increases, new and economical ways of doing things need to come into force so that there can be effective consumption of resources.


Global institutions and companies have been at the forefront of championing for more investment in STEM education, and that is why they remain some of the major bodies that offer grants and donations towards these courses.


STEM are fields that are not pursued by the significant majority, and therefore, those pursuing STEM-related courses have high chances of landing and winning grants, although this needs hard work and determination as well. There is o shortcut or easy way out.


Vernier/NSTA Technology Awards

The Vernier/NSTA Technology awards aim at promoting the innovative and creative use of data collection technologies using a computer, graphics calculator, or any other handheld device in a science classroom setup. This award will comprise of seven $5,500 awards, and these awards will span from elementary level to the college level. The awards will be distributed evenly across those levels.


Lockheed Martin Corporation Grants

Lockheed Martin provides grants to students in the K-16 band to pursue courses, studies, and research in Science, Engineering, Technology, and Math, to support and advance the business goals of the corporation. The corporation provides grants to various programs, events, and campaigns which aim to foster the academic achievements of students, the development of teachers and to promote ethnic diversity.


Applicants for this grant must ensure that their interests are in line with Lockheed Martin’s strategic focus area of delivering standards-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics academics. Further, applicants must also ensure that they reside or operate in a community or region in which Lockheed Martin Corporation has employees or other business interests.


National Science Foundation Advancing Informal STEM Learning Grants

The Advancing Informal STEM Learning Grants, which is under the aegis of the National Science Foundation, aims to advance new ways of understanding the design and the development of STEM Learning in informal environments using evidence.


The Advanced Informal STEM Learning program supports five different types of projects which include Pathways, research in Service to Practice, Innovations in Development, Broad Implementation, and Conferences, Symposia, and Workshops.

The deadline for applications for this grant is in November, and the programs will mainly center on informal STEM learning.


Lowe’s Toolbox for Education

The Lowe’s Charitable and Educational Foundation (LCEF), over time, has been actively contributing to grassroots community projects since its inception in 1957. The LCEF provides finances to tax-exempt, not for profit organizations and public institutions in communities where Lowe operates stores and distribution centers.


The projects that are eligible for this projects should fall under tools for STEM programs, safety improvements, facility renovations, and STEM programs. Requests for grants can range from $2,000 to $100,000, but it is worthy to note that a significant majority of grants will be given in the range of $2,000 to $5,000. Other crucial projects that will require a sum which exceeds $25,000 will be considered on a case-by-case basis.


Toshiba America Foundation Grants

The Toshiba America Foundation (TAF) offers grants in science and math for the 6th to the 12th-grade band. Toshiba America Foundation, which is supported by the Toshiba Corporation and the Toshiba America Group of Companies, is committed to helping classroom teachers make science and mathematics learning successful and enjoyable as possible. Towards this end, The Toshiba America Foundation funds project ideas and materials that teachers need to innovate teaching in their science and math classrooms.


TAF has a keen interest in projects that are designed by teachers, or small groups of teachers for use in their respective schools. Public and not for profit private schools throughout the United States are eligible for grants, and applications for grade 6 -12 for an amount of $5,000 or less are accepted on a rolling basis throughout the calendar year. Requests for grants for amounts that exceed $5,000 are reviewed two times a year.


To sum this up, there are leading companies and corporations in the fields of technology, science, and engineering that offer some of the best opportunities when it comes to STEM grants. Given the relevance of STEM education in the years to come, public institutions and other concerned agencies have also increased their input into STEM education, and this is evident by the increase in grants and other related financing arrangements for projects that are STEM-related.


What is the Meaning of Pepsi Logo?

Leading companies in the world share a common feature – a recognizable logo. From Apple’s iconic fruit, Nike’s unmistakable swoop, to Pepsi bright and bold colors, logos are synonymous with the brand they represent. Overall, a strong logo is good for the company’s branding and conveys its vision.

Companies rebrand through new approaches to create memorable logos. Their objective is to grab the attention of the increasingly disloyal modern consumers.

Logos are a marketing model in which companies invest vast resources to craft the perfect image.

Most viewers spend three seconds at most to scan the web pages of companies. The next thing they look for is the company’s logo.

A logo design is vital to the company for a number of reasons:

  • Creating the first impression through appeal to learn more about the company,
  • It is iconic and memorable and poor designs can be associated with bad efforts that are difficult to shake off,
  • Logo is a basis for strong branding,
  • It communicates the company values, and
  • It defines the brand image.

Pepsi lovers can testify that the company’s logo meets all of the criteria. However, most fizzy drinkers may not be familiar with the intricate meaning behind the bold, bright colors of the company’s logo as it is known today.

The search for the perfect meaning is evident in the evolution of the Pepsi logo over the years.

Understanding the meaning of Pepsi logo requires knowledge of its design features.

The shape of the Pepsi logo

Pepsi logo is three dimensional in shape. It comprises a globe painted with two completely different colors. A swirl at the center compliments and separates the two disks of the globe. The fonts appear along with the globe giving it an appealing look.

Colour of the Pepsi logo

The two distinct and contrasting colors give Pepsi logo its beauty – red for the top hemisphere of the globe and blue for the bottom hemisphere. The Pepsi font is inscribed in white. The combination of the colors creates a tantalizing effect, an invitation to consumers to taste and become part of the product.

The combination of colors symbolizes the company’s core emotional values. The dark royal blue featured in the original beverage conveys the idea of “cool.” The lighter shade of the Pepsi Max is linked to “fresh and cool.”The golden colors in the caffeine free variations symbolize balance and energy.

The Pepsi colors, red, white and blue, were introduced to represent the American flag. It was launched in the Second World War to support the American troops and the war effort.

Font of the Pepsi logo

The Pepsi logo has a simple yet elegant and prominent font that uses italicized roman typeface.

The current version of the company’s logo is nicknamed “Pepsi Globe.” The logo, redesigned in 2008 for 1 million dollars by The Arnell Group, closely resembles a smile.

The redesign tapped into several streams of inspiration from ancient wisdom including Feng Shui, the Parthenon, Pythagoras geo-dynamics and the Golden Ratio.

The overall design is a representation of the globe, but the logo also represents the ‘human body, Da Vinci’s Vitruvian principles, the Chinese art of placement and spatial’. “Breathtaking logo” was the phrased used by the designing company to describe the current Pepsi logo.

The swirling horizontal white stripe running through the centre of the globe is a visual representation of the earth’s movements of rotation and revolution. The swirl also represents a naturally occurring electric generator in a fluid motion that generates and sustains the magnetic field of the earth.

It also captures the use of symbols and wavy lines by Ancient Egyptians and other civilizations in describing the swirling movement of water.

The current Pepsi logo is seen by the general public as a smiling globe.

The logo captures different aspects of the company including its global brand status. It remains simple and appealing to the eye and invokes intended emotions.

Decision Making in an Organization

It is interesting to find an individual researching on such diverse field of decision making in an organization. Decision making is the key factor to the success of an organization. One point that I conquer with my fellow classmate’s post is that the people in your organization should not solemnly depend on one individual to make all decisions but rather be involved. The individual might not be having a vast experience in a certain field. When involved in making decisions for that department, things might end up not working which means failure of the organization in general. In essence, all the departments in your organization should work to make their decisions without depending on a given person. By doing this, it would help to mentor other junior employees in the department hence attainment of experience in making firm decisions. When the whole staff makes decisions, it is also confident that they will be right and efficient.

Despite your good notices in your organization, at times, there exist that one individual in the organization who is well experienced in almost all departments of the company. It is wise to consult such people when it comes to making controversial decisions that affect the organization. The main reason for consultation is to ensure accountability and correctness. The other point that surprises me in your post is the connection between grief and fear and decision making in your organization. The main aim of making decisions is for prosperity. No one in the world would want to make a mistake so that he/she learns from the errors. Decisions made should work for the benefit of making the organization better that it was before. It is, therefore, important for your organization to keenly monitor the process of decision making to ensure success in all departments.

Companies Embrace IPO Alternatives by Maxwell Murphy


The topic of the journal is straightforward and easy to understand. It almost gives you an idea if what to expect as you read through the journal. The author brings an interesting side of companies that is yet known by the public. As he states majority of the big companies are shying away from IPOs and instead are looking into other options such as being acquired by other equity suitors either private or public. He has given an example of Ballast Point Brewing & Spirits Inc. that didn’t hold an IPO but instead sold itself to Constellation Brands Inc. To validate his point, Murphy (2016) compares the number of IPOs completed so far this year against the same period last. The number has dropped to 96 from 170 last year, a decline by 44%. The amount raised has also dropped by 43.2% from $ 30.3 billion last year to $ 17.2 billion this year.

Some companies would also want to capitalize on the availability of private capita, which according to the author, has increased from $ 1.39 trillion in 2015 to $ 1.46 trillion this year.

Those opting out of IPOs give reasons such as expenses involved with IPOs as well as the thought of having to give quarterly records to the public as is expected by public companies. They prefer to give these reports to a small group of investors. Market volatility has also kept some firms off IPOs.

There are numerous examples of the companies as well as their data. The article can be easily understood even by one who has no prior experience in business. The author would have improved this piece even by providing more analysis of the topic. There are too many examples provided and less analysis. As you read through every sentence, you find numbers and more companies but you rarely find explanations on what the numbers really tell.

This article brings to light the other alternatives to IPOs. Here we see that more and more companies are opting for selling out as opposed to going public which has been the norm for a while. A company should determine what it is that they want and how they want it. If going public works for them, then they should and if not they should look for other ways of raising capital.

Basic Finance

The article “How to Invest in a Closed-End Fund” published by Fox business seeks to address the some of the factors that can lead to a successful closed-end funds investment. The research problem being addressed is based on the assumptions that an investor decides to go with closed-end funds. Pointed out are some of the things to review (“How to Invest in a Closed-End Fund”, 2016).

It is clear from the article that it is not a simple issue to trade with the closed-end fund and that is why the author advises that an investor runs a thorough background check on other options that have similar investment goals before diving into closed-end funds. The author states that one of the reviews that need to be considered is the expenses.  A conflict emerges when he concentrates much on the manager side rather than on the actual matter at hand; the shares.  The manager being a skilled person in this field should know better considering his duration in the fund management. The crucial thing to do should be to consider trading the shares through a discount brokerage in order to hold the costs down.

There is one very logical reason why closed-end funds trade at a discount to their Net asset Value. This is because there is no structural feature that is similar to an ETF where you can arbitrage if it does trade at a discount or redeems and get the underlying assets. That does not exist in closed-end funds and because of that, there is a risk that can occur when it trades at a discount which means that an investor should be compensated for that risk and they should be the one willing to pay a discount for that security. This is another influence that the author doesn’t mention when he talks about the discount.

Overall, this is a good concept on how to invest in closed-end funds, however, the author fails to go into details about the kind of investor suitable for this kind of investment, there doesn’t appear to be any kind of concrete guideline on how to carry out this. In other words, this sounds great for a paper but does not translate in everyday life.

From my point of view, I think closed-end funds are more suitable for the investors who are relatively astute to the financial market because there are certain risks. An investor who is probably not best suited is the one who is not going to look under the hood and see actually what is under the closed closed-end funds, is there leverage involved, where is the historical discount etc. So it really needs someone who is going to scrub the web and see if they are going to get more detailed information.